international experiences in peace processes


Mapa de procesos de paz internacionales
Colombia

Context

The armed conflict in Colombia has very deep roots, going beyond the emergence of the current guerrillas in the 1960s. In addition to the violence that characterized relations between liberals and conservatives from the 19th century to the time of the National Front (1958-1978), there was also repression against any alternative political option. Thus, politics serving the interests of the elite, social exclusion, and the lack of democratic opposition options explain the emergence of the various guerrilla groups of the 1960s and 1970s, including the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the National Liberation Army (ELN), both emerging in 1964.

The violence was aggravated by the appearance of paramilitary groups in the early 1980s, especially the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC), joining the counterinsurgency struggle. To this context of violence, we must also add the phenomenon of the production and export of drugs and the emergence of new paramilitary structures linked to drug trafficking, which has made the conflict more complex, with the civilian population as the main victim

Process reasoning

  • To end the historic armed conflict in Colombia, perpetuated by the FARC guerrillas for 53 years.
  • President Santos instructed his negotiators to begin discussion as soon as possible on the point of a bilateral and definitive ceasefire and hostilities.

AGREEMENTS ON THE MAIN ISSUES

Investigación, justicia y contena Investigation, justice, and sentences

  • The Special Jurisdiction for Peace will investigate, try, and convict those responsible for crimes. Those who tell the truth and contribute to the reparation of victims will have sanctions of effective restriction of freedom for 5 to 8 years. Those who do not acknowledge their responsibility and do not tell the truth shall be punished by imprisonment in ordinary places of detention for up to 20 years.
  • There will be no amnesty for those who have committed crimes against humanity.
  • The Government stated that it pardoned 30 FARC militants who were convicted solely of the crime of rebellion, and that it undertook to review the situation of 106 other FARC prisoners with illnesses.
  • The FARC publicly acknowledged its responsibility for the Bojayá massacre in 2002, in which 79 people were killed.
  • The Special Peace Tribunal will determine the conditions for the restriction of freedom. For access to these benefits, compensation of victims and truth telling will be required.

Investigación, justicia y contenaDemobilization and handing over of weapons

  • The members of the FARC had to demobilize and lay down their arms in order to benefit from the Peace Accord.
  • In total, 12,518 former combatants have been accredited and 8,994 firearms have been surrendered.
  • The FARC and the Government reached a historic agreement on the joint demining of the territory, with the help of Norwegian People's Aid (NPA), which would lead and coordinate project implementation.

Investigación, justicia y contenaReparation of Victims

  • The victims are at the center of the Peace Accord, which seeks to offer them truth, justice, reparation (one of the foundations of the Special Jurisdiction for Peace), and non-repetition guarantees.
  • President Santos was in favor of holding a referendum at the end of the process to validate the agreements with the FARC. Starting in April, regional meetings were held throughout the country, which, led by the Congress Peace Commissions, were responsible for collecting the opinions of the victims and bringing them to the negotiating table in Havana.
  • The FARC responded that they had expressed their willingness, and called Colombian society to a great national day of reconciliation, calling for a date of collective pardon and recognition of victims.

Successes and failures of the process

  • On 24 November, the Peace Accord between the Government and FARC was signed.
  • It was a successful agreement that put an end to the oldest guerrilla movement on the continent.
  • Until recently, Colombia was the only country in the Western Hemisphere with an armed conflict. The National Liberation Army (ELN) and, especially, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the strongest group, had been engaged in an armed struggle with the Colombian Government since 1965.
  • On 2 October, 2016, the plebiscite seeking to endorse the Peace Accord was lost. However, it was later endorsed by the Congress of the Republic.
  • The FARC recognized, for the first time since the beginning of the talks in Havana, its share of responsibility for the thousands of deaths during the armed conflict.
  • The Government would allow for the creation of Special Peace Constituencies in the House of Representatives, not so that FARC commanders could be assured of seats, but so that the inhabitants of the most intense conflict areas could stand for election.

Post-Conflict

  • The Peace Accord is in the post-conflict phase.
  • The JEP is responsible for bringing justice to the victims of the conflict.
  • The Colombia Peace Fund is designed to manage peacebuilding resources.
  • The FARC and the Government reached a historic agreement on the joint demining of the territory.
  • The FARC suspended their military courses to replace them with political and cultural training.
Mapa de El Salvador

Context

In the El Salvadorian Civil War, the Armed Forces of El Salvador fought for its constitutional role of defending state sovereignty against the insurgent forces of the Farabundo Martí Front for National Liberation.

Most of the population, as well as members of the top leadership of the guerilla, were convinced that that the most reasonable alternative for ending the conflict was negotiation.

In 1983, the United Nations Security Council approved a resolution that expressed its support for pro-peace activities of the Contadora Group (Colombia, Mexico, Panama and Venezuela), which initiated a series of consultations with the five Central/South American countries.

In April 1990, a dialogue was held in Geneva, backed by the United Nations and in the presence of the General Secretary, which resulted in a signed accord setting in the place the norms for a negotiation process and confirming the willingness of both sides to find a negotiated political solution.

Purpose of the Process

  • To end internal conflict in El Salvador perpetrated by the guerilla FMNL for over one decade
  • The Civil War between the FMLN guerilla and the repressive and militaristic government started in 1980 and caused over 75,000 deaths
  • The objectives were to end the armed conflict through politics, promote democratization in the country, guarantee unrestricted respect for human rights and reunify the society.li>

MAIN THEMES OF THE AGREEMENT

Investigation, justice, and convictionsInvestigation, justice, and convictions

  • Two commissions were created: the ad hoc commission, for the cleansing of the Armed Forces; and the Truth Commission, for the investigation of serious acts of violence that took place during the war driven by foreigners.
  • A general amnesty law was approved just after the signing of the accords. Within its scope, it excluded people who were listed in the Truth Commission’s report for their participation in violating human rights; in the end, these people did not face criminal prosecution.
  • The Truth Commission was created to investigate serious acts of violence that took place during or after 1980. The Commission received more than 22,000 allegations. In May of 1991, the Security Council passed Resolution 693 for the formation of the United Nations Observation Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL), with the initial mandate to verify the fulfillment of the San José Human Rights Accords.

Investigación, justicia y contenaDemobilization and the Handing-over of Weapons

  • The National Reconciliation Law, passed on January 23rd, 1992, led to the definitive end of armed actions between the government and the FMLN guerilla.
  • The guerilla weaponry were deposited in the containers controlled by ONUSAL, except for small arms for personal defense.
  • Around 13,000 guerilla fighters demobilized.

Investigación, justicia y contenaVictim Reparation

  • Victims shared accounts of violence, but victim reparation was not a main focus of the process.
  • Demobilized guerilla, farmers, and small-holder producers without arable land were given land in previous conflict zones.

Successes and Failures of the Process

  • The accord has been upheld at least at 80%.
  • A reconciliation policy that permitted free elections was established and former guerilla were able to hold positions of power.

Post-conflict

  • Two years after the signing of the peace accord, the FMLN were elected to 21 out of 84 seats in the Legislative Assembly (about 25%).
  • After the signing of the accord, the first elections in the period of peace were held. For the first time the FMLN participated in the elections.
  • Despite the handing-over of weapons, the accord did not make the country peaceful. Currently, El Salvador is one of the most violent countries in the world.
  • 25 years after the signing of the peace accord, the country is still trying to fulfill part of the Accord, such as victim reparation and economic support to affected families, as well as processing the cases of the perpetrators of the war.
Mapa de Irlanda de Norte

Context

For 30 years, the Unionists (majority Protestant) fought against the Republicans (majority Catholic) in Northern Ireland. The Unionists fought to keep ties with the United Kingdom, while the Republicans wanted independence or integration into the Republic of Ireland.

The peace process in Northern Ireland last more than a decade. Its origins date back to the mid-80s when there was a favorable environment for peace, likely as a result of war fatigue, the influence of other peace processes, the need for economic need for peace, the support offered by the U.S. Administration and the people’s desire for peace.

In 1987, the first, secret dialogues between John Hume, leader of the Northern Ireland Laborist and Social Democratic Party, and the British government took place.

The 1998 Good Friday Agreement, which helped put an end to one of the bloodiest conflicts of the 20th century, has been the backbone of a peace process that began with a conservative government and ended with the laborist Tony Blair.

Purpose of the Process

  • The clashes between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland, which began at the end of the 70s over specific political aspirations, were exacerbated in 1993 after a series of attacks committed by the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and paramilitary unionist groups in the province
  • Before this situation, the then British Prime Minister John Major and his Irish colleague Albert Reynolds decided to united efforts to pursue an end to the violence.

MAIN THEMES OF THE AGREEMENT

Investigación, justicia y contenaInvestigation, justice, and convictions

  • General amnesty after the signing of the Belfast Agreement. Prisoners from the organizations that agreed to a complete and unequivocal truce were freed. A total ceasefire was agreed.

Investigación, justicia y contenaDemobilization and the Handing-over of Weapons

  • The IRA handed-over their weapons to an international commission that later melted all of the weaponry in the presence of a Catholic priest and a Protestant pastor. The event was carried out without publicity or photographs to avoid the sensation of defeat or victory.
  • The disarmament lasted for seven years. In total, 1,000 rifles, machine guns, and mortars; seven surface-to-air missiles, two tons of explosives, two dozen heavy-duty and ammunition vehicles.

Investigación, justicia y contenaVictim Reparation

  • The rights of victims to construct a true testimony of historical memory. In the same way, funds were allocated for the needs of victims.

Successes and Failures of the Process

  • It was a successful process. After four years of difficult negotiations (1994-1998) and almost 500 years of conflict, the Belfast Agreement was signed, putting an end to the conflict in Northern Ireland.
  • The Agreement was supported by the vast majority of political parties in Ireland, Northern Ireland, and England.
  • The role of prisoners and negotiation methodology (principle of sufficient consensus, principle of parallel consent, and Mitchell principles)

Post-conflict

  • The process culminated with the formation of an autonomous government of shared power between the two historic rivals, the Unionist Ian Paisley and the Republican Martin McGuinness. On May 8th, 2007, shortly before ending his term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, President Tony Blair announced an end to the process.
Mapa de sudáfrica

Context

At the end of the 80s, the liberation forces (comprised of a national popular movement, the African National Congress (ANC) and the Pan African Congress in exile and its guerilla forces) formed a movement, since they were not able to gain power through politics.

The violence of state repression cost many lives of those in the movements and the end of apartheid meant an opportunity for peace building.

In 1994, South Africa held its first democratic elections, which marked the end of Apartheid.

Purpose of the Process

  • In February 1990, the apartheid state liberated Mandela and other well-known imprisoned leaders, leaving behind the lesser-known activists.
  • Temporal amnesty was granted to exiles so that they could participate in the dialogues and repeal the apartheid laws. At the same time, racist divisions persisted.
  • The ANC agreed to ceasefire and formal negotiations began. Nevertheless, the police and military personnel remained armed and in action, while the liberation army was restricted to bases in the periphery states.

MAIN THEMES OF THE AGREEMENT

Investigación, justicia y contenaInvestigation, justice, and convictions

  • A Truth Commission was established to record serious human rights violations in a document, give recommendations especially regarding victim reparation, and grant amnesty in exchange for truth.
  • Those who confessed the truth (regardless of the crime committed) could be granted amnesty by the Truth Commission. Those who did not confess underwent a penal process.
  • In the negotiations, the ANC obliged that a new government would be elected democratically under the principle “one man, one vote, in unified South Africa, free of sexism and racism.” It was evident that elections allowing the majority black population to vote would result in overwhelming support for Nelson Mandela and the ANC.

Investigación, justicia y contenaDemobilization and the Handing-over of Weapons

  • Spear of the Nation was the armed branch of the liberation movement led by Nelson Mandela. This group demobilized as agreed in the sign peace accord.
  • Spear of the Nation suspended its activities in 1990. After the end of apartheid and the rise of the ANC to power, its members were integrated into the South African Armed Forces. In 1998, they comprised 16% of the armed forces.

Investigación, justicia y contenaVictim Reparation

  • • Victims forwent penal and civil action in exchange for the truth and State reparation. In 2003, a single payment of US$ 3,750 was paid to the 22,000 victims who were included in the Commission’s report. In urgent cases, reparations were paid in 2001 from a presidential fund. A lands restitution law was created.
  • The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) received testimonies from 21,000 victims and gave reparation to 16,000 victims. The government paid less than half of the quantity that the TRC had outlined for reparations.
  • Many of the perpetrators of the violence (especially high level officials of the apartheid government and police and military officials) refused to declare the truth or only relayed what was already known. The TCR only granted amnesty to 849 individuals.

Successes and Failures of the Process

  • The Multiparty Negotiation Process was implemented as a mechanism for formal negotiation between the government and political parties.
  • Many of the victims and survivors today feel that the TRC process was a failure and many never testified. It is estimated that over 85,000 people met the conditions to be considered victims and survivors of human rights abuses.
  • Many officials from the previous government kept their positions in the new government, meaning that they were responsible for implementing changes they systematically rejected.
  • Members of the armed forces and police of the former regime also maintained their positions under the newly formed government.
  • The new Bill of Rights established the protection of private property as a fundamental human right. The demand of the liberation movement to redistribute lands to the natives that were taken by the white colonial settlers and afterwards, including as part of apartheid displacement, were not considered a fundamental human right.

Post-conflict

  • More than 20 years after the end of apartheid, some of the demands of the liberation movement have not been fulfilled by the government. Today, supporters of the movement (including some in the government) refer to two phases of the revolution. Forming part of the democratic government was the first phase.
  • The agreement led to a government with principles of democracy and justice, rather than an apartheid system- a system of laws to meant to entrench racial, gender, and class divisions (the UN qualified apartheid as a crime against humanity). Nevertheless, South Africa is still one of the most unequal countries in the world.
  • The majority of the wealthy are of the White minority. The majority of the Black population does not have adequate housing, safe drinking water, electricity, sufficient food, health or education. These were not the results the liberation movement fought for.
Nicaragua Mapa

Context

The FUAC, in arms since 1993, was the product of the phenomenon of combatants re-arming. Rebel groups that emerged in Nicaragua seven years ago arguing that the government of President Violeta Barrios de Chamorro (1990-1997) failed to comply with the peace accords of 1991, which had put an end to the conflict between the Sandinista Army and the so-called Contra guerrillas, who were backed with funding from the US Government and whose goal was to overthrow the Marxist Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), which governed the country between 1979 and 1990.

In 1984, elections were held and the FSLN won. In 1985, the US imposed a trade embargo suspending trade relations with Nicaragua. By 1986, the US Government was condemned by the International Tribunal in The Hague and was requested, without success, to cease its aggression against the small country of Nicaragua.

Purpose of the Process

  • The political situation at both the international and domestic levels was extremely delicate. There was a lot of pressure from abroad for the government to deal differently with the situation in the Nicaraguan Atlantic, especially since its inhabitants were indigenous people who were being persecuted and repressed by the government that was nurturing insurgent forces based in Honduras and Costa Rica.
  • On January 15 and 16, 1988, a new presidential summit was held in San José, Costa Rica, known as Esquipulas III. It concluded that the actions carried out in the area of peace and democracy by the governments of the region had not been entirely satisfactory. Consequently, a commitment arose to complete the obligations undertaken in an unconditional, unilateral, total and inexcusable manner. The Summit acknowledged the efforts of the International Verification and Monitoring Commission (CIVS), but noted the reservations raised by some presidents regarding its expert ruling and relieved it of its duties, which were instead given to the Executive Commission.

MAIN THEMES OF THE AGREEMENT

Investigación, justicia y contenaInvestigation, justice, and convictions

  • Pardon all the of the Contras without distinction of the crime committed in exchange for the laying down of arms
  • The Sandinista government approved Law 81, which granted total amnesty to the Sandinista Army and the Contras from July 1979 to April 1990.

Investigación, justicia y contenaDemobilization and the Handing-over of Weapons

  • Elections were called in exchange for a ceasefire and the demobilization of the resistance.
  • The United Front Andrés Castro (FUAC), the last insurgent group to operate in Nicaragua, completed the disarmament of its members, leading to peace after three decades of armed conflict.

Investigación, justicia y contenaVictim Reparation

  • The political class in Nicaragua is still indebted to the victims. For genuine national reconciliation to occur, an independent and impartial Truth Commission must be set up to investigate the serious human rights violations that occurred during the Somoza dictatorship and the Sandinista regime, as did Guatemala and El Salvador. Even though the conflict has ended, it is not too late to investigate the crimes. For example, Canada formed a Truth Commission in 2007 to investigate events that occurred in the mid-19th century that resulted in the forced separation of indigenous children from their families in order to assimilate them into the mainstream culture.

Successes and Failures of the Process

  • The Government of Nicaragua, through the Ministry of Defense and in agreement with the General Staff of the Northern Front 3-80, defined areas where FSLN members were present as zones of peace and security.
  • Land rights program: benefiting 15 of Nicaragua's 21 indigenous territories in the historically marginalized regions of the Atlantic coast. Since 2005, more than 104,000 people have benefited in 214 communities in five of the largest ethnic groups. An area that represents 18% of the national territory has been registered and titled.
  • Community Paver Modules: cheaper and locally made blocks are used for faster and more sustainable construction of roads, taking advantage of the availability of local labor. More than 200 kilometers of roads have been built, benefiting some 460,000 people and generating more than 65,000 temporary jobs for community work. IDA has also supported the development of 40 micro-enterprises that are dedicated to the routine maintenance of 2,400 km, or 88% of the road network.

Post-conflict

  • Nicaragua, after the end of the war, officially began the transition period. The government was elected in January 1990 and presided over by Violeta Chamorro. The period was considered transitional as it was necessary to dismantle and replace the institutional structures conceived by a war-torn State with new, unpartisan, national-type institutions.
  • In particular, it was necessary to reform the army and police. These negotiations required time, patience, education, stability, diplomacy, political will, and financing. Funding that had been promised by the US administration and did not fulfill its promises.
El Congo

Context

In 2008, the Congolese government began peace talks with the armed group the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP), which were enabled by the internal divisions that persisted within the group, international pressure, and the willingness of the parties. Thus, CNDP and the Congolese administration sealed the dialogue in 2009, agreeing to the integration of their combatants into the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a bilateral ceasefire, disarmament, and the transformation of CNDP into a political party (IEGAP, 2012).

The first stage of the peace process in DR Congo came with the signing of the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement in July 1999 between several countries and armed groups present in the conflict, with the facilitation of the regional organization Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) and, in particular, South Africa, which enabled the establishment of the UN Peacekeeping Mission (MONUC) in November 1999 (Security Council Resolution 1291), to monitor the ceasefire and promote the disarmament of the militias..

Purpose of the Process

  • The UNDP agreed in 2002 with the Congolese Government on a Cooperation Program for the period 2003-2005 that defined three strategic axes: (a) governance, (b) the fight against poverty, and (c) conflict prevention and post-conflict transition.
  • The FDLR announced its voluntary disarmament in April, although there were doubts about the real scope of the process.
  • In 2015, the Congolese Armed Forces launched a military operation against the Rwandan armed group FDLR with an offensive in the province of South Kivu. This operation was announced at the end of January against FDLR members who had rejected the voluntary disarmament established in April 2014. The FDLR proposed a political dialogue with Rwanda as a condition for continuing disarmament, which was rejected by Rwanda.

MAIN THEMES OF THE AGREEMENT

Investigación, justicia y contenaInvestigation, justice, and convictions

  • Amnesty was granted as long as the members of the Congolese guerrillas joined the Armed Forces of Congo. Many former combatants deserted and created the M23 guerrilla group, which has recently been given pardons.
  • In Feburary 2011, the Armed Forces of Congo and the Republican Federalist Forces Forces armed group (FRF) reached an agreement after intense negotiations that led to the group's integration into the army.
  • In February 2014, an amnesty law was passed, mainly for M23 members in Uganda, but during the year, the terms of this amnesty were not clarified and most M23 members did not join.

Investigación, justicia y contenaDemobilization and the Handing-over of Weapons

  • A call was made for disarmament and integration of the Armed Forces of Congo.
  • In early 2005, 6,000 troops were demobilized from the FAPC, one of the region's 86 armed groups. At the end of July 2006, some of the militias operating in the eastern region of the DRC, within the armed opposition coalition MRC, decided to lay down their arms, facilitate the free movement of displaced persons in the area in order to exercise their right to vote in the elections, and progressively integrate into the Armed Forces of Congo in exchange for amnesty for all its members.
  • The most worrying element was the disarmament of FDLR, which is estimated at between 1,500 and 2,000 combatants. The Rwandan Government estimated this number at between 3,500 and 8,500 combatants.

Investigación, justicia y contenaVictim Reparation

  • Millions of people displaced as a result of armed conflict and other victims have not received any reparation, despite international pressure, such as from the UN.

Successes and Failures of the Process

  • Combatants charged with crimes against humanity will be excluded from the program and their cases will be taken to the judicial authorities. On judicial reform, Action Aid highlights the need to support a transitional justice process, to increase the number of international prison officers.
  • The Government planned to create 12 brigades of 4,200 troops made up of a mix of former combatants from various backgrounds.
  • Since September 2004, the seven armed groups operating in the Ituri region have been able to voluntarily join the Ituri Disarmament and Community Reinsertion Plan (DCR Plan), concentrating on seven transit centers. The FNI armed group has been the most active participant in this plan.

Post-conflict

  • The mission, which supports the Government and is administered by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), consists of four phases: peace-enforcement, cease-fire monitoring, DDRRR (still in force), and support for the transition and organization of elections.
  • It has 17,030 troops, 760 military observers, 391 police trainers and 750 formed police unit members. The last extension of the mission's deployment, until 31 December 2007, was established by Resolution 1756 (S/RES/2007) of 15 May 2007, which mentions the importance of the reintegration of former combatants and SSR for the stabilization of the country.
Mapa de Sierra Leona

Context

The All People's Congress (APC) repressively ruled the country for more than 20 years. In 1991, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) invaded Sierra Leone from neighboring Liberia, with the logistical and material support of warlord Charles Taylor, whose group, the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL), was waging its own war against the Government of Liberia. The Sierra Leonean army considered all civilians in these areas as RUF collaborators and multiplied the atrocities on both sides, causing the displacement of 400,000 people.

In July 2000, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1306, prohibiting the direct or indirect import of rough diamonds not controlled by the Government of Sierra Leone through a system of certificates of origin, on the grounds that this business aggravated the situation in the country.

On 8 September 2007, the second elections since the country signed the Lomé Peace Accord were held.

Purpose of the Process

  • The Accord stipulates that all prisoners of war and all non-combatants shall be released by both parties immediately and unconditionally. The parties shall seek funding for the voluntary repatriation and reintegration of Sierra Leonean refugees and displaced persons, including non-combatants. The principles set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights shall be protected.
  • The parties had to undertake the strengthening of existing mechanisms to redress grievances against victims of human rights violations by establishing a Commission on Human Rights within 90 days of the signing of the Accord.
  • The parties had to promote human rights education in Sierra Leonean society including in schools, through the media, with the police and military, and in the religious community by seeking technical and material support from the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights as well as from local human rights groups and civil society in Sierra Leone to monitor the observance of these rights.

MAIN THEMES OF THE AGREEMENT

Investigación, justicia y contenaInvestigation, justice, and convictions

  • A Truth Commission was established in 2000 and a Special Court for Sierra Leone was established with an agreement between the UN and the Government of Sierra Leone.
  • General amnesty was granted without distinction of the crimes committed. (although the Special Court subsequently investigated and tried those responsible)
  • The internal armed conflict in Sierra Leone was characterized by cruelty and terrible atrocities committed against civilians. Killings, amputation of limbs (usually hands and arms), rape and other forms of sexual assault and abductions were systematic and widespread. Despite the peace agreement signed in July 1999 by the government and the armed opposition, these abuses continued.
  • It is estimated that between 10,000 and 15,000 children were abducted and forced to participate in the war as child soldiers and that approximately 2,000 remain missing.

Investigación, justicia y contenaDemobilization and the Handing-over of weapons

  • The granting of general amnesty at the end of the conflict was highly criticized by the United Nations, which said it would not recognize amnesty for those responsible for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and other serious violations of international humanitarian law.

Investigación, justicia y contenaVictim Reparation

  • The civil war, which began in 1991, resulted in 75,000 victims.
  • According to the Lomé Accord, the Government was to establish a fund to compensate and rehabilitate the victims.
  • The Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established in July 2002 to address impunity, respond to the needs of victims, promote healing and reconciliation and prevent a recurrence of violations and abuses.
  • The Commission's final report was presented in 2004 and while efforts have been made to implement the recommendations, the compensation program has not been successful.
  • The Government has established administrative bodies to monitor and facilitate the implementation of each of these security guarantees and will establish a fund for the rehabilitation of victims. It will also pay special attention to the situation of child soldiers and the need for them to be integrated into the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) process.

Successes and Failures of the Process

  • In January 2002, the civil war finally ended.
  • Sankoh died in prison. The peace process, with all its uncertainties and failures, lasted eight years.

Post conflict

  • Further negotiations between the Government and the rebels took place in 1999. The Lomé Accord was signed in May and a dialogue between the Government and the RUF was launched. The Government transported Sankoh from Freetown to Lomé, with a promise of amnesty. The negotiations were facilitated by the Government of Togo.
  • A ceasefire and the release of prisoners of war were carried out. The main provisions of the agreement were the transformation of the RUF into a political party, the establishment of a government of national unity, the granting of the vice-presidency for Sankoh, the establishment of a Council of Religious Notables and Leaders to perform mediation functions, amnesty, the holding of elections, the launching of DDR process, the restructuring of the Armed Forces, and the establishment of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the gradual withdrawal of ECOMOG forces.
  • In May 2000, 500 blue helmets were kidnapped by the RUF, resulting in a British military intervention, the dismantling of the RUF, and the arrest of Sankoh. However, in November, the Abuja I Agreement was signed, which decreed a ceasefire monitored by UNAMSIL and the surrender of arms by the RUF, as well as a DDR program and the restructuring of the Armed Forces. As the fighting continued, an offensive by Guinean troops against the RUF took place in 2001. In May, however, the Abuja II Agreements between the RUF and the Government were signed, establishing a DDR program.


Fecha de publicación 07/06/2018
Última modificación 19/06/2018
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