History of colombian peace processes


× Después de 50 años de conflictos, el proceso de paz fue posible desde el año 2016 en el gobierno de Juan Manuel Santos.

Process

Peace process with the FARC guerrilla group

Actors

  • Government of Juan Manuel Santos
  • FARC guerrilla group

Process reasoning

End the historical armed conflict in Colombia, perpetuated by the FARC guerrilla group for 53 years

What was being agreed?

  • The Special Jurisdiction for Peace will investigate, judge, and sentence those responsible for crimes. Those who tell the truth and contribute to the reparation of victims will be effectively imprisoned for 5 to 8 years. Those who do not recognize their responsibility and do not tell the truth will be imprisoned in regular prisons for up to 20 years.
  • There will be no amnesty for those who have committed crimes against humanity.

Was it a success or did it fail?

  • Success
  • It was signed on 24 November 2016, ending the internal conflict and the oldest guerrilla group on the continent.
  • The FARC had to demobilize and hand in their weapons to benefit from the Peace Accord.
  • A total of 12,518 former combatants have been accredited and 8,994 weapons were turned in.

Conclusion

  • The FARC handed their weapons in to the UN.
  • The victims are at the center of the Peace Accord, which seeks to offer them truth, justice, and reparation (one of the foundations of the Special Jurisdiction for Peace) and non-repetition guarantees.
  • The peace process between the Government of Colombia and the FARC guerrilla group ends an internal armed conflict of more than 50 years, allowing progress towards the future in social, political, and economic terms.

Process

Peace process with the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)

Actors

  • Alvaro Uribe
  • United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC)

Process reasoning

The end of the AUC. To this end, in a public letter sent to President Uribe, the AUC declared a national cessation of hostilities as of 1 December of that year, fulfilling the National Government’s requirement for beginning conversations.

What was being agreed?

On 23 December 2002, the National Government designated an Exploratory Peace Commission to move forward with exploratory dialogues with this armed group.

Was it a success or did it fail?

  • Success
  • The Government managed to sign a peace agreement with the AUC. The so-called “Ralito Accord” was signed on 15 July 2003, in which the AUC committed to demobilizing all of their members before 2005.
  • Álvaro Uribe issued the Justice and Peace Law (975), awarding pardon to the members of illegal groups deciding to demobilize and contribute to reconciliation.
  • Álvaro Uribe signed Law 782, in which he decreed the pardoning of those sentenced for political and related crimes, and the cessation of cases against those wishing to integrate into civilian life.
  • A total of 30,150 people were demobilized.

Conclusion

  • The gradual demobilization of their structures lasted three years, 2003-2006. Part of the leadership was extradited.
  • The Constitutional Court refused the article which categorized the AUC’s crimes as an act of sedition, meaning that they did not gain political status.
  • However, those who demobilize could join corporations and cooperatives, with their respective reintegration incentives.
  • While leading the rapprochement with the Government to begin the peace process, the historic leader of the AUC, Carlos Castaño, was murdered by his own troops in 2004.

Process

Peace negotiations with the FARC guerrilla group

Actors

  • Andrés Pastrana
  • FARC guerrilla group

Process reasoning

Reach an agreement with the FARC guerrilla group which would end the armed conflict in Colombia.

What was being agreed?

The Government made a proposal based on a policy of negotiation and peace with guerrilla groups.

The negotiations began with a 10-point agenda named “Peace Policy for Change,” including the issues of human rights, agrarian reform, political reform, the paramilitary phenomenon, and international humanitarian law.

Was it a success or did it fail?

  • Failed
  • The Government and the FARC did not manage to sign a concrete peace accord and there was no political or State agreement on the demilitarized zone, even less so on the agenda or reforms.
  • Andrés Pastrana signed Law 548 to pardon and amnesty the political crimes of organizations with that status. This did not apply for genocide, kidnapping, war crimes, or crimes against humanity.
  • However, four agreements with which the freedom of more than 400 members of the public forces were achieved.
  • President Prastana accepted the demilitarization of an area the size of Switzerland in order to establish talks with the FARC.
  • President Prastana accepted the demilitarization of an area the size of Switzerland in order to establish talks with the FARC.
  • The Personalities Commission was created, and made a series of recommendations to facilitate progress in the talks.
  • After many governments, a president finally took the guerrilla group seriously and offered it a very generous initial proposal without asking for anything in return.
  • The opening of this process was followed closely by the media.

Conclusion

  • The Government and FARC delegates ended without an agreement. The FARC guerrilla group made nine open letters to national and international personalities and sectors public, in which they declared the Government responsible for the final collapse of the talks.
  • The process ended when former Congressman Luis Eduardo Géchem was kidnapped in 2002..

Process

Accord with the Quintín Lame Armed Movement

Actors

  • Government of César Gaviria
  • Quintín Lame Armed Movement

Process reasoning

End the Quintín Lame Armed Movement

What was being agreed?

The Government wanted demobilization and disarming.

The movement wanted President Cesar Gaviria to commit to allowing their members to return to the territories of origin, maintaining an active presence in local political life.

Accord with the Quintín Lame Armed Movement

Was is a success or did it fail?

  • Success
  • An agreement was signed with the Quintín Lame Armed Movement on 6 March 1991.
  • The Quintín Lame participated in the National Constituent Assembly, where it promoted important changes for the indigenous community in Colombia, with their recognition by the Constitution, and their identity and rights derived from their culture being the most important after the demobilization of the Quintín Lame.

Conclusion

  • Due to the demobilization and disarming of 130 members of this guerrilla group, the Quintín Lame Armed Movement had a representative in the National Constituent Assembly which led to the Constitution of 1991.

Process

Peace accord with the EPL guerrilla group

Actors

  • Government of César Gaviria
  • EPL guerrilla group

Process reasoning

End the conflict with the EPL guerrilla group.

What was being agreed?

The demobilization of the 2,200 people fighting with the EPL, political inclusion in rural areas and main cities, and their participation in the Constituent Assembly.

Agreements with a sector of the EPL.

An agreement was made to create a joint Government-EPL commission to oversee human rights.

An agreement was made to give those demobilizing a salary.

Se acordó crear una comisión conjunta Gobierno-EPl para vigilar los derechos humanos

Was it a success or did it fail?

  • Éxito
  • An accord was signed with the EPL on 15 February 1991.
  • The demobilization of the majority of the troops, 2,200 guerrillas, was agreed on 1 March with the handing over of weapons under the slogan “Weapons to the Discretion of the Constitutional [Assembly].” From that day, the group became known as Hope, Peace, and Liberty (EPL, for its Spanish acronym).

Conclusion

  • Considered as one of the most dogmatic and belligerent guerrilla groups in Colombia’s history, the EPL signed an agreement during the administration of President César Gaviria, “in the village of Juan José, department of…

Process

Peace accord with the M-19 guerrilla group

Actors

  • Government of Virgilio Barco
  • M-19 guerrilla group

Process reasoning

End the conflict with the M-19

What was being agreed?

The primary demand of this guerrilla group was to hold a National Constituent Assembly to modify the bipartite political structure and open spaces for the participation of diverse political currents.

Was it a success or did it fail?

  • Éxito
  • The first peace agreement between a guerrilla group and the Colombian State was signed on 9 March 1990, in Caloto, Cauca.
  • The M-19 turns in their weapons, reintegrates into civilian life, and becomes a political force.
  • A Commission for the studying of the drug trafficking phenomenon is created.
  • Virgilio Barco issues Law 77 to administrate the M-19, allowing amnesty for political crimes, which did not apply to crimes outside of combat, or to acts of brutality.
  • Amnesty and pardon were offered, allowing some members to enter into important political positions, such as Antonio Navarro Wolff y Gustavo Petro.
  • Disarming with the International Socialist Commission, and subsequent handing over of their arsenal to the Public Forces.
  • Thanks to the demobilization of the former militants, the National Peace Fund was created (with State, private business, and international resources), which sponsored the projects of those demobilizing, and their families.
  • A total of 900 combatants demobilized.

Conclusion

  • A new constituent assembly was held, and thanks to this, the seats in Congress for guerrilla groups reaching peace with the National Government were expanded.
  • The M-19 was the first armed group to sign a peace deal with the government, and following disarmament, was the first to become a political party and alternative to traditional bipartite politics in Colombia.

Proceso

Diálogos con lo que se llamó La Coordinadora Guerrillera Simón Bolívar (Farc, M-19, Eln, El, Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores y el Movimiento Armado Quintín Lame) para llegar a un acuerdo de paz

Actores

  • Gobierno de Cesar Gaviria
  • La Coordinadora Guerrillera Simón Bolívar

Razón del proceso

Entablar nuevos diálogos con las Farc, a pesar del bombardeo que hubo a Casa Verde (Cuna de las Farc) y también con las demás guerrillas.

¿Qué se estaba pactando?

Acuerdos con el Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores (PRT)

Acuerdos con el Movimiento Armado Indígena Quintín Lame

Acuerdos con un sector del Eln y El.

¿Fue exitoso o fracasó?

  • Fracasó
  • Debido a La desconfianza entre las partes para llegar a un acuerdo y con la nueva Constitución el Estado estrenaba una legitimidad que redujo ostensiblemente los márgenes para acordar las reformas a que aspiraban las Farc
  • Cesar Gaviria expidió la Ley 213 que amnistió al Prt, al Epl y al Quintín Lame, por delitos de rebelión sedición, asonada y conexos. Aplicó suspensión de la sentencia y rebaja de pena para delitos comunes.

Conclusión

  • Estas negociaciones se rompieron cuando miembros del Epl secuestraron y asesinaron al exministro Argelino Durán en 1992. Y, las Farc no llegó a ningún acuerdo, pero si, continuaron alzados en armas

Process

Rapprochement with the FARC and the Simón Bolívar Guerrilla Coordinator (M-19, ELN, Revolutionary Workers’ Party and the Quintín Lame Armed Movement) for peace negotiations.

Actors

  • Virgilio Barco Government
  • FARC guerrilla group

Process reasoning

To put an end to the armed conflict between the actors at this time, after the failure of the negotiations in Uribe, Meta, and the genocide of the Patriotic Union.

What was being agreed?

President Virgilio Barco tried to move towards the negotiation of a peace agreement with the FARC.

Dialogues with the M-19 guerrilla also began.

Was it a success or did it fail?

  • Failed
  • Despite the good will of the government, the recent genocide of the UP made it impossible for the FARC to sit down and negotiate.
  • There was some important progress with the other guerrilla groups. In October 1988 the Coordinator responded to President Virgilio Barco's Government's proposed peace plan, and as initial points this organization proposed a meeting between the Government and the guerrilla forces’ command to find a political solution to the conflict under three fundamental axes: life, democracy, and national sovereignty.
  • A positive result was that President Virgilio Barco issued Law 77 to amnesty the M-19 for political crimes.

Conclusion

  • The meetings failed, because the FARC guerrilla group was rearming and not ready for peace talks due to the recent extermination of their political movement, the Patriotic Union.

Process

Peace conversations with the FARC

Actors

  • Belisario Betancur Government
  • FARC guerrilla group

Process reasoning

Reach a bilateral ceasefire agreement with FARC.

President Betancur's campaign and government objective was to demobilize members of guerrilla groups and reintegrate them into civilian life.

In 1982 a peace negotiation with the FARC began.

The first agreement with the FARC was reached in the municipality of Uribe, Meta. The truce was formally initiated on 28 May 1984 with the FARC's unilateral order to suspend hostilities.

What was being agreed?

This agreement sought to restructure and modernize institutions, strengthen democracy, and guarantee the political activity of FARC members, and that they leave the armed struggle.

Was it a success or did it fail?

  • Success
  • It was a success that in March 1984 the first agreement was signed between the FARC guerrillas and the government in the municipality of La Uribe, Meta department.
  • The greatest achievement of these dialogues was that the government recognized the opposition as a political actor. Thanks to this, on 30 March 1985, the formation of the Patriotic Union was announced, seeking the FARC’s political recognition
  • It was a success that on 19 September 1982, the Peace Commission was created by decree. Two months later, Law 35 of 1982 came into force, granting amnesty for political crimes.
  • It failed, due to the genocide of the Patriotic Union political party..

Conclusión

  • The Uribe Agreement, Meta, which established a ceasefire between the army and the FARC, was signed in 1984. However, the process ended in 1987 due to the fact that the Patriotic Union political party, of which members of the FARC, the communist party, indigenous people, students, trade unions, etc. were a part, was exterminated. This party won 23 mayoral elections of its own and 102 in coalition elections.

Process

Attempt at initiating peace conversations with the FARC

Actors

  • Government of Julio Cesar Turbay
  • Government Representative: Carlos Lleras Restrepo
  • FARC guerrilla group/li>

Razón del proceso

To end the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), founded in 1964, and which represented an armed conflict in the country.

What was being agreed?

Attempts were made to negotiate with the FARC guerrillas so that they would lay down their weapons and reintegrate into civilian life.

Was it a success or did it fail?

  • Failed
  • It failed because, according to the Government representative, former President Carlos Lleras Restrepo, it was not possible to establish the relevant communications between the actors.
  • A success was the issuing of Law 37 of 1981, which grants amnesty to Colombians who commit or participate in acts that constitute rebellion.

Conclusion

  • It ended due to problems of contact and communication between the actors, Government representative, former President Carlos Lleras Restrepo, and the leaders of the FARC.


Fecha de publicación 07/06/2018
Última modificación 19/06/2018
Powered by Nexura